Erwerbungsakten: Erwerbungsakten der Gemäldegalerie, Historischer Aktenbestand © Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Zentralarchiv
Erwerbungsakte: Auszug aus einer Erwerbungsakte der Gemäldegalerie von 1930 © Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Zentralarchiv
Verso Klee: verso of Paul Klee’s “Lebkuchenbild” (The Gingerbread House), 1925, with stickers and markings © Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Nationalgalerie
Rückseite Nolde: Detail auf dem Rahmen von Emil Noldes „Sünderin“, 1926 mit Namen des Künstlers © Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Nationalgalerie
Researching the origins of artefacts in our collections is one of the key responsibilities of all curatorial and research staff at the museums. However, the stipulations that require museums to systematically investigate their holdings for cultural assets acquired through Nazi persecution, in particular Jewish property, have become more complex and extensive since the Washington Principles were agreed in 1998 as well as the resolution passed by the board of the Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz in 1999.
To meet these demands, a full-time position for provenance research at the SMB was established in 2008. The primary goal was to bring together, in one location, the various strands of often highly specialised and exacting historical research undertaken by the museums in response to ongoing restitution claims for works from the SMB’s collections. In this way, the necessary and thorough investigation of all museum objects acquired since 1933 can be better coordinated and advanced. The office is situated at the Zentralarchiv, where all existing records on the history of the museums are preserved for posterity. This location was an obvious choice as the archive’s comprehensive and manifold historical resources form the starting point for all research into the provenance of objects from the collections.
At the heart of provenance research at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin is the question of ownership which, considering the breadth and diversity of the Berlin collections and their more than 180-year history, not only covers the period of National Socialism but also the changes in ownership that occurred in the 1920s, e.g., the expropriation of royal assets in 1926, and during the periods of the Soviet occupation in the eastern zone of Berlin and the wider GDR. Further responsibilities of provenance research are to identify objects that belong to third parties and to reconstruct how these objects came to the museums, as well as to establish proof of the origins of works that were assumed to have been lost during the war but have since reappeared on the art market. The provenance research office can also provide invaluable assistance when acquisitions are planned by any of the collections at the SMB, and when details of objects that were given or accepted on permanent loan in the past need to be clarified.
The systematic research of the collections with regard to cultural assets that were looted or acquired through Nazi persecution, in particular Jewish property, was first carried out for acquisitions made by the museums between 1933 and 1945. This research resulted in numerous objects, primarily from the Nationalgalerie, the Kupferstichkabinett, the Kunstgewerbemuseum and the Gemäldegalerie, being returned to their rightful owners. Parallel to this endeavour, work began on the investigation of acquisitions from the post-war period, with emphasis on modernist works from the Nationalgalerie and the Kupferstichkabinett. Several research projects undertaken by the individual collections support these investigations.
In addition, the custodians of the collections continually undertake provenance research as part of their day-to-day work, the results of which can be seen in catalogues of the collections and exhibitions, and are also documented in databases and online catalogues.
The Galerie des 20. Jahrhunderts was a joint research project held by the Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz and the State of Berlin. The project systematically studied around 500 works of art (paintings, sculptures, works on paper) that were created up until 1945, owned by the state of Berlin, and kept as permanent loans in the Nationalgalerie and Kupferstichkabinett. The results of this successfully completed project are presented in a book and in an online databbase. While the published book focuses on the historical context of this forgotten chapter in the history of Berlin’s museums, the website presents the provenances of the works studied.
Lead researchers: Dr. Christina Thomson, Dr. Hanna Strzoda
Duration: 2010 to 2016 (completed)
Since 1992, the holdings of the Kupferstichkabinett of the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin have included the ‘Drawing Collection’, made up of predominantly nineteenth-century oil sketches, watercolours and drawings. During the Nazi era, around 1,200 works were acquired for this collection, which was established in 1878 as a separate division of the Nationalgalerie through a transfer from the former Königliche Kupferstichkabinett. The works in question were taken from artist’s studios and from private collections and galleries, and from 1938 onwards, an increasing number were sourced from auctions. With the support of the German Lost Art Foundation, this collection has been systematically analysed in an effort to identify items that were divested as a result of Nazi persecution.
Lead researcher: Dr. Hanna Strzoda
Duration: 2013 to 2016
This three-year research project is centred around the investigation and documentation of the external holdings of the Antikensammlung. As well as this, the antiquities from Carinhall (Hermann Göring’s collection) from the holdings of the Federal Republic of Germany will be investigated. A publication in the external property catalogue series of the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, which will be produced upon completion of the project, will document the results.
Lead researcher: Dr. Laura Puritani
Duration: 2013 to 2016 (completed)
More information: Exhibition catalogue webshop
The scholarly basis of the exhibition The Lives of Images. Provenances at Museum Berggruen was generated through a research project supported by the Deutsches Zentrum Kulturgutverluste (German Lost Art Foundation). This project, carried out from 2015 to 2018, investigated the provenances of 135 pre-1945 art objects which previously formed part of the private collection of Heinz Berggruen, and are presently the property of the Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz (Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation). The project looked at paintings, works on paper and sculptures by Pablo Picasso, Paul Klee, Henri Matisse, Georges Braque and Henri Laurens. Over three years, the provenances of these works were systematically investigated in order to identify cultural property acquired as a result of Nazi persecution, particularly of Jewish owners.
Lead researchers: Dr. Sven Haase, Doris Kachel
Duration: 2015 to 2018 (completed)
For the current status of provenance research on the Guelph Treasure: SPK Dossier "The Guelph Treasure"
Networks of Art Dealers and Provenance Research
In a three-month project supported by the German Lost Art Foundation, the diaries of Prof Friedrich Winkler – art historian and Director of the Berlin Kupferstichkabinett from 1933 to 1950 – will be analysed in terms of their research value for broader efforts at provenance research and for understanding historical connections between art dealers. To this end, a sample of four diaries from the period of 1933–1945 will be examined. The diaries are currently in the private collection of the Winkler family.
Lead researcher: Doris Kachel
Duration: April to June 2019