In August 1935, Dresdner Bank and the Prussian state signed a contract for the sale of around 4,400 works of art. The bank had accumulated these works over years through loan transactions (usually because customers had put them down as collateral), holding them at the Berlin headquarters of the Dresdner Bank and in various branches throughout Germany. These works were sold for 7.5 million Reichsmarks, making the transaction one of the largest art deals of the Nazi era.
From the very beginning, the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin was involved in the Dresdner Bank’s protracted negotiations with the relevant ministries, as the museum network – which was run by the government – was to be responsible for the safekeeping of this huge collection of works. What’s more, since this state transfer covered the entire spectrum of museum art forms (including sculptures, paintings, graphic art, furniture, oriental carpets and Persian ceramics), the government required the expert knowledge of museum professionals from various fields.
The Zentralarchiv is investigating whether these works of fine and decorative art might have been acquired as a result of persecution at the hands of the Nazis. These investigations are being carried out because several Jewish businesspeople were among the loan recipients whose assets – assigned as loan collateral – were sold by the Dresdner Bank in 1935. Since the nature of the individual loan transactions varied so greatly, each one will be looked at separately. The key question is why individual loan recipients were unable to repay the loans, causing the works of art to be seized.
Today, the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin still holds works from 23 different loan transactions, spread across eight of their collections. As there have already been investigations into some particularly extensive groups of works in the past, this project concentrates on around 200 objects which previously belonged to 19 different individuals or shareholders. Lynn Rother’s 2017 doctoral thesis, which was published under the title Kunst durch Kredit and supported by the Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz, serves as an important foundation for this provenance research. Her book provides the historical basis for understanding this large transaction, which brought together the various works of art from the various bank transactions.
Institution: Zentralarchiv, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin
Coordinator: Dr Hanna Strzoda
Duration: since 2018